智能涂料——智能的选择

有很多定义 聪明的涂料, however they all have the common trait of being able to sense and interact with their environment. Smart 涂料 offer additional functional value to that provided by traditional properties of protection and decoration. A report by Transparency Market Research predicts the global smart 涂料 market will expand at a compound annual growth rate of 29.8% during the period between 2017 and 2025 and reach 1 billion dollars in sales by 2024.

智能涂料的外部刺激

智能涂料的外部刺激因素可能包括以下特性:

  • 防腐
  • Antifingerprinting
  • 防污
  • Antimicrobiological
  • 抗真菌
  • Color-shifting
  • 容易清洁
  • 电致变色的
  • 疏水
  • 亲水
  • 防冰
  • 光伏
  • 压电
  • 压磁性
  • 自愈
  • 太阳热反射
  • Super-疏水
  • 热变色

These 涂层 properties can be obtained by the use of novel specialty additives, 颜料和/或聚合物.

Icephobic涂料 either resist the formation of ice on the surface to which ice has poor adhesion or facilitate the release of ice that has formed on the surface. Icephobic涂料 have application in the aircraft industry, wind turbines and power lines. 有两种类型的冰形成是有问题的.

  • 冰霜,更通俗地称为霜
  • 眩光冰, 更常见的说法是釉状冰, 是什么形成了一个连续的液态水层并在其表面冻结. 耀眼的冰对电线和飞机尤其危险.

An icephobic 涂层 can either be formulated to work for rime ice or glare ice, but not both. 对于眩光冰,一定程度的疏水性是必要的, however the surface structure of many super疏水 涂料 can actually enhance ice adhesion. The low surface polarity and surface structure of super疏水 涂料 renders the surface less icephobic than would be expected based on the contact angle. 图1说明了.

图1 -了解更多关于智能涂料的信息

Some studies show that elastomeric polyurethane 涂料 provide less ice adhesion than that of 涂料 that are similarly structured but more glassy in nature. The theory is that the surface of the PU elastomeric 涂层 induces slippage between the solid ice and that of the lightly cross-linked PU or silicone elastomeric structure with dangling chains at the surface.

Other approaches utilize freezing point depression on some surfaces or the addition of oils to low surface tension 涂料. 最后, some 涂料 utilize additives to increase the degree of undercooling required for ice nucleation to form.

自我修复涂料

All 涂料 are susceptible to 刮伤ing and abrasion during their service life. 刮擦和磨损不仅对外观有不良影响, but further reduce the effective life expectancy in the event that the 涂层 is applied over an oxidizable metal surface.

Seongpil一个等.艾尔研究了基于胶囊或纤维的自愈技术. 一旦涂层被刮花, micro or nano-capsules containing catalyzed liquid polymerizable materials (e.g. 干性油,二环戊二烯)被释放到划痕中. 图2说明了基于胶囊或纤维的自愈技术. 一旦胶囊破裂, polymerization takes place filling the void and funct离子 to reduce moisture ingress and thus improve 腐蚀 resistance as well as the appearance of the 涂层. Fibers based on thermoplastic poly(e-caprolactone) distributed in an epoxy matrix is one example of self-healing technology to restore film integrity when exposed to heat.

图2-基于胶囊或纤维的自愈合涂层

图2 -了解更多关于智能涂料的信息

环境传感涂层

能够对环境的变化做出反应, 这些涂料适用于多种应用. For example some 水传播的 interior house 油漆s contain a dye that changes color due to exposure to interior light or a change in pH during the drying process. Upon drying, the change in color from for example pink or purple helps to signify 足够的覆盖率 在一种颜色相似的内毛上.

Coatings that contain a pH sensitive dye and fluorescent molecules are also used to 检测腐蚀. Another approach is the use of a Rhodamine B-based dopant in epoxy 涂料 to sense 腐蚀 on both steel and aluminum as it responds to both a decrease in pH and the presence of Fe+++ 离子.

Another fast growing area of smart 涂料 is the use of 涂料 that are modified to resist colonization of surfaces by viruses or bacteria. 大多数表面含有微量的营养物质,如糖, 能使微生物生长和繁殖的油或磷.


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抗菌涂料

抗菌涂料 have utility in multiple applicat离子 including hospitals, 厨房, 公共浴室, 交通运输(出租车, 超级汽车, 飞机)、扶手和门把手. Additives that have been successfully used include materials containing silver in various binders or absorbed onto a porous surface to enable slow release and improve longevity. 季铵盐也具有抗菌活性, 季铵盐对病毒和真菌更有效. Copper also provides some antimicrobial activity as well as organic based anti-bacterials such as Triclosan.

表1 -其他智能涂层应用的总结

涂层类型主要刺激智能响应
太阳能反射Reflect IR EnergyLight colors and dark colors using doped mixed metal oxides阳光提供更凉爽的表面,节省空调成本
压电颜料在受到应力时会产生电流(pb - zr -钛酸盐)振动当受到机械应力时产生电压
压磁多晶材料在受力时会产生磁场振动当受到机械应力时会产生磁场
热变色变色响应温度液晶和Leuco染料温度指示指定范围内的温度变化
电致变色的Polymeric electrolyte that changes color when exposed to an electric current电流颜色变化,审美情趣,指标
疏水/亲水表面改性配合调整表面张力水分Adjust water contact angle to repel (疏水) or attract moisture (hydrophilic)

For additional information concerning the selection of materials to enhance 疏水ity, 请导航到 www.ulprospector.com (EU).

  • 有机涂料,科学与技术,弗兰克. 琼斯等人.al.,威利 & 儿子,2017
  • PCI杂志
  • 科学指引
  • Shape Memory Assisted Self- Healing Coatings, 2013, Material Science, Luo and Mather
  • Transparency Market Research: 聪明的涂料 Market – Global Industry Analysis, 大小, 分享, 增长, 趋势, 和预测2017 - 2025
  • 安成弼,李敏旭,亚历山大L. Yarin,山姆年代. 尹, A review on 腐蚀-protective extrinsic self-healing: Comparison of microcapsule-based systems and those based on core-shell vascular 净works, 化学工程杂志, 卷344, 2018, 206 - 220页, ISSN 1385 - 8947, http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2018.03.040.

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